Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the role of hypoxia in male breast carcinogenesis by evaluating the expression of the hypoxia-related proteins, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) and glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1), in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the male breast in relation to invasive cancer (IC). Methods: Tumour tissue blocks of 18 cases of pure DCIS, 58 DCIS cases adjacent to IC (DCIS-AIC) and the 58 IC cases were stained by immunohistochemistry for HIF-1α, CAIX and Glut-1, and expression frequencies and patterns (diffuse and/or perinecrotic) were noted. Results: HIF-1α overexpression was observed in 61.1% (11/18) of pure DCIS, in 37.9% (22/58) of DCIS-AIC and in 36.2% (21/58) of IC cases (not significant (n.s.)). CAIX overexpression was observed in 16.7% (3/18) of pure DCIS, in 37.9% (22/58) of DCIS-AIC and in 24.1% (14/58) of IC cases (n.s.). Glut-1 overexpression was observed in 61.1% (11/18) of pure DCIS, in 75.9% (44/58) of DCIS-AIC and in 62.1% (36/58) of IC cases (n.s.). Expression of hypoxia-related proteins was seen around necrosis in a little over one-third of DCIS cases, and often coincided with expression in adjacent IC when present. All these observations indicate that the hypoxia response is already at its maximum in the preinvasive DCIS stage. Conclusions: In conclusion, male DCIS frequently shows activated hypoxia response, comparable to male IC. This indicates that the activated hypoxia response previously seen in male IC is not a late bystander but likely a genuine carcinogenetic event.

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Keywords breast cancer, ductal carcinoma in situ, hypoxia, male
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1136/jclinpath-2019-206116, hdl.handle.net/1765/121009
Journal Journal of Clinical Pathology: an international peer-reviewed journal for health professionals and researchers in clinical pathology
Citation
Vermeulen, M.A. (Marijn A), van Deurzen, C.H.M, Schröder, C.P, Martens, J.W.M, & van Diest, P.J. (2019). Expression of hypoxia-induced proteins in ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive cancer of the male breast. Journal of Clinical Pathology: an international peer-reviewed journal for health professionals and researchers in clinical pathology. doi:10.1136/jclinpath-2019-206116