Objectives: Massive transfusion protocols (MTPs) may improve survival in patients with uncontrolled haemorrhage. An MTP was introduced into the Dutch transfusion guidelines in 2011, the ninth edition of the advanced trauma life support course in 2012 and the third version of the European guideline in 2013. This is the first survey of MTPs in Dutch trauma centres. Methods: The aim of the study was to compare MTP strategies in level 1 trauma centres in The Netherlands, and with (inter)national guidelines. A contact in each government assigned level 1 trauma centre in The Netherlands and the Dutch Ministry of Defence was approached to share their MTPs and elucidate their protocol in a survey and oral follow-up interview. Results: All 11 level 1 trauma centres responded. The content of the packages and transfusion ratios (red blood cells/plasma/platelets) were 3:3:1, 5:5:1, 5:3:1, 2:3:1, 4:4:1, 5:2:1, 2:2:1 and 4:3:1. Tranexamic acid was used in all centres and an additional dose was administered in eight centres. Fibrinogen was given directly (n=4), with persistent bleeding (n=3), based on Clauss fibrinogen (n=3) or rotational thromboelastometry (n=1). All centres used additional medication in patients in the form of anticoagulants, but their use was ambiguous. Conclusion: MTPs differed between institutes and guidelines. The discrepancies in transfusion ratios can be explained by (inter)national differences in preparation and volume of blood components and/or interpretation of the '1:1:1' guideline. We recommend updating MTPs every year using the latest guidelines and evaluating the level of evidence for treatment during massive transfusion.

Additional Metadata
Keywords blood, emergency, massive, military, platelets, protocol, surgery, tranexamic acid, Transfusion, trauma
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2019-208665, hdl.handle.net/1765/122847
Journal Emergency Medicine Journal: an international peer-reviewed journal for health professionals and researchers in emergency medicine
Citation
Rijnhout, T.W.H. (Tim W.H.), Noorman, F. (Femke), Bek, A. (Annemarije), Zoodsma, M. (Margreet), & Hoencamp, R. (2019). Massive transfusion in the Netherlands. Emergency Medicine Journal: an international peer-reviewed journal for health professionals and researchers in emergency medicine. doi:10.1136/emermed-2019-208665