Research suggests some sequences of examples and problems (i.e., EE, EP) are more effective (higher test performance) and efficient (attained with equal/less mental effort) than others (PP, sometimes also PE). Recent findings suggest this is due to motivational variables (i.e., self-efficacy), but did not test this during the training phase. Moreover, prior research used only short task sequences. Therefore, we investigated effects on motivational variables, effectiveness, and efficiency in a short (Experiment 1; 4 learning tasks; n=157) and longer task sequence (Experiment 2; 8 tasks; n=105). With short sequences, all example conditions were more effective, efficient, and motivating than PP. With longer sequences, all example conditions were more motivating and efficient than PP, but only EE was more effective than PP. Moreover, EE was most efficient during training, regardless of sequence length. These results suggest that example study (only) is more effective, efficient and more motivating than PP.

example-based learning, mental effort, problem-solving, self-efficacy, video modeling examples,
VSNU Open Access deal
Applied Cognitive Psychology
corresponding author at Avans Breda
Department of Psychology

Van Harsel, M, Hoogerheide, V, Verkoeijen, P.P.J.L, & van Gog, T.A.J.M. (2020). Examples, Practice Problems, or Both? Effects on Motivation and Learning in Shorter and Longer Sequences. Applied Cognitive Psychology, in press. doi:10.1002/acp.3649