Objectives: Since 2004, uterine fibroids have been treated with MR-HIFU, but there are persevering doubts on long-term efficacy to date. In the Focused Ultrasound Myoma Outcome Study (FUMOS), we evaluated long-term outcomes after MR-HIFU therapy, primarily to assess the reintervention rate. Methods: Data was retrospectively collected from 123 patients treated with MR-HIFU at our hospital from 2010 to 2017. Follow-up duration and baseline (MRI) characteristics were retrieved from medical records. Treatment failures, adverse events, and the nonperfused volume percentage (NPV%) were determined. Patients received a questionnaire about reinterventions, recovery time, satisfaction, and pregnancy outcomes. Restrictive treatment protocols were compared with unrestrictive (aiming for complete ablation) treatments. Subgroups were analyzed based on the achieved NPV < 50 or ≥ 50%. Results: Treatment failures occurred in 12.1% and the number of adverse events was 13.7%. Implementation of an unrestrictive treatment protocol significantly (p = 0.006) increased the mean NPV% from 37.4% [24.3–53.0] to 57.4% [33.5–76.5]. At 63.5 ± 29.0 months follow-up, the overall reintervention rate was 33.3% (n = 87). All reinterventions were performed within 34 months follow-up, but within 21 months in the unrestrictive group. The reintervention rate significantly (p = 0.002) decreased from 48.8% in the restrictive group (n = 43; follow-up 87.5 ± 7.3 months) to 18.2% in the unrestrictive group (n = 44; follow-up 40.0 ± 22.1 months). The median recovery time was 2.0 [1.0–7.0] days. Treatment satisfaction rate was 72.4% and 4/11 women completed family planning after MR-HIFU. Conclusions: The unrestrictive treatment protocol significantly increased the NPV%. Unrestrictive MR-HIFU treatments led to acceptable reintervention rates comparable to other reimbursed uterine-sparing treatments, and no reinterventions were reported beyond 21 months follow-up. Key Points: • All reinterventions were performed within 34 months follow-up, but in the unrestrictive treatment protocol group, no reinterventions were reported beyond 21 months follow-up. • The NPV% was negatively associated with the risk of reintervention; thus, operators should aim for complete ablation during MR-guided HIFU therapy of uterine fibroids. • Unrestrictive treatments have led to acceptable reintervention rates after MR-guided HIFU therapy compared to other reimbursed uterine-sparing treatments.

Additional Metadata
Keywords High-intensity-focused ultrasound ablation, MR-guided interventional procedures, Uterine fibroids
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-019-06641-7, hdl.handle.net/1765/124907
Series VSNU Open Access deal
Journal European Radiology: journal of the European Congress of Radiology
Note corresponding author at UMC Utrecht & Zwolle
Citation
Verpalen, I.M. (Inez M.), de Boer, J.P. (Jolien P.), Linstra, M. (Marlot), Pol, R.L.I. (Roelien L. I.), Nijholt, I.M. (Ingrid M.), Moonen, C.T.W, … Braat, M.N.G. (Manon N. G.). (2020). The Focused Ultrasound Myoma Outcome Study (FUMOS); a retrospective cohort study on long-term outcomes of MR-HIFU therapy. European Radiology: journal of the European Congress of Radiology. doi:10.1007/s00330-019-06641-7