PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the management and outcome of local recurrences after transanal endoscopic microsurgery for T1 rectal cancer. METHODS: Consecutive patients who underwent transanal endoscopic microsurgery for pT1 rectal cancer at a Dutch referral center (IJsselland Hospital) were registered in a prospective database. Follow-up was according to Dutch guidelines on rectal cancer, with additional rigid rectoscopy and endorectal ultrasound examinations every 3 months for the first 2 years, and every 6 months thereafter. Annual MRI of the lesser pelvis was added during the last 2 years of the study. Patients with local recurrence during follow-up were selected for individual analysis of outcome. RESULTS: Of a total of 88 patients who underwent transanal endoscopic microsurgery for pT1 rectal cancer, 18 patients (20.5%) had a local recurrence. Median time to local recurrence was 10 (range, 4-50) months. Medial age at diagnosis of recurrence was 74 (range, 56-84) years. Of the 18 patients, 2 did not undergo further surgery because of concomitant metastatic disease, and 16 underwent salvage surgery, without need for multivisceral resections. No postoperative mortality was observed. In 15 patients (94%), a microscopically negative excision margin was obtained; in 1 patient, the excision margin was microscopically positive. Median follow-up after salvage surgery was 20 (range, 2-112) months. One patient had a local renewal of recurrence, and 7 patients (39%) had distant metastases. At 3 years, overall survival was 31%; cancer-related survival was 58%. CONCLUSIONS: Recurrent disease after transanal endoscopic microsurgery for T1 rectal cancer is a major problem. Although salvage surgery for achieving local control is feasible in most patients, survival is limited, mainly because of distant metastases. Tailoring selection of T1 rectal cancers and exploring possible adjuvant treatment strategies following salvage procedures should be the next steps toward improving survival.

Local recurrence, Salvage surgery, Survival, T1 rectal cancer, Transanal endoscopic microsurgery
dx.doi.org/10.1007/DCR.0b013e3181e73f33, hdl.handle.net/1765/27694
Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Doornebosch, P, Ferenschild, F.T.J, de Wilt, J.H.W, Dawson, I, Tetteroo, G, & de Graaf, E.J.R. (2010). Treatment of recurrence after transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) for T1 rectal cancer. Diseases of the Colon and Rectum, 53(9), 1234–1239. doi:10.1007/DCR.0b013e3181e73f33