Key messages
The Commission recommends five priority investments to achieve a tuberculosis-free world within a generation. These investments are designed to fulfil the mandate of the UN High Level Meeting on tuberculosis. In addition, they answer the question of how countries with high-burden tuberculosis and their development partners should target their future investments to ensure that ending tuberculosis is achievable.

Invest first to ensure that high quality rapid diagnostics and treatment are provided to all individuals receiving care for tuberculosis, wherever they seek care
This priority includes rapid drug susceptibility testing and second-line treatment for resistant forms of tuberculosis. Achieving universal, high-quality person-centred and family-centred care—including sustained improvement in the performance of private sector providers—usually should be the top policy and budget priority.
Reach people and populations at high risk for tuberculosis (such as household and other close contacts of people with tuberculosis, and people with HIV) and bring them into care
Active case-finding and treatment in high-risk populations demands adequate resources to reach and care for these populations. At the same time, reaching certain high-risk populations, such as people co-infected with tuberculosis and HIV, for tuberculosis preventive therapy is essential to achieve epidemiologic control. Once high-risk populations have access to affordable, high-quality diagnostic, treatment and preventive services, invest in identifying tuberculosis cases in the general population, primarily by strengthening the capacity to deliver health services and move toward universal health coverage.
Increase investment to accelerate tuberculosis research and development and bring new diagnostics, therapeutic strategies, and vaccines to clinical practice to quickly end the pandemic
Strong advocacy with science ministries and research-oriented pharmaceutical companies is crucial, including ministries and companies in middle-income countries, to highlight the importance of investing in new tools. Financing the early uptake of new products will provide important confidence signals to product developers.
Make investment in tuberculosis programmes a shared responsibility, increasing development assistance for tuberculosis according to the financial needs of individual low-income and middle-income countries
As countries successfully mobilise more domestic resources towards tuberculosis programmes, external assistance to middle-income countries should address the following priorities: reduce the spread of drug-resistant tuberculosis in all affected low-income and middle-income countries; facilitate market-shaping activities to enable access to high quality drugs and diagnostics for high-burden countries; and finance tuberculosis research and development, including product development as well as population, policy, and implementation research that will provide lessons and international sharing of best practices.
Hold countries and key stakeholders accountable for progress made towards ending tuberculosis
Accountability entails establishing independent, multisectoral processes, such as national tuberculosis report cards, to ensure that all stakeholders carry out their responsibilities to contribute to ending the pandemic. Accountability mechanisms should not only assess progress, but also guarantee that Heads of Governments, national tuberculosis programmes, and even regional and site-level clinics, as well as key non-governmental organisations, take the necessary corrective actions to remove obstacles to ending tuberculosis.

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Reid, M.J.A. (Michael J A), Arinaminpathy, N. (Nimalan), Bloom, A. (Amy), Bloom, B.R. (Barry R), Boehme, C. (Catharina), Chaisson, R. (Richard), … Goosby, E.P. (Eric P). (2019). Building a tuberculosis-free world: The Lancet Commission on tuberculosis. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30024-8